Willoway Nurseries, Inc.

The Midwest's Premier Wholesale Grower!
Landscape Reference Guide

The following is provided for informational purposes only and is only a guideline!
Willoway makes no guarantees as to the completeness or accuracy of the following.

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Native, Adaptive Native & Wetland Plants

The key to using native or wetland plants successfully is carefully choosing plants that will match your site conditions. While some native plants are tremendously adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions, many are quite habitat-specific. Before you start selecting plant materials, know your site, including the exposure, soil texture, pH, fertility, moisture conditions, weed problems, and the history of use. The conditions will need to be similar to a desired plant's natural habitat. Some discrepancies can be corrected with soil amendments, mulching, fertilization, and other techniques, but these solutions may not overcome a poor match between your selected plant and site. The issue of native plants in the industry is sometimes confusing as to what is a true native and what is a adaptive native plant. The below list is a combination of several extension and industry lists of native, adaptive native and suggested wetland plants.

Acer rubrum
Acer saccharum
Amelanchier canadensis
Amelanchier laevis
Aronia arbutifolia
Aronia melanocarpa
Betula nigra
Calycanthus floridus
Campsis radicans
Carpinus carolina
Carpinus betulus
Celtis occidentalis
Cercis canadensis
Chionanthus virginicus
Clethrea alnifolia
Cornus alternifolia
Cornus florida
Cornus racemosa
Crategus curgalli
Crategus phaenopyrum
Eleagnus augustifolia
Fagus sylvatica and cvs.
Ferns-asst varieties
Fraxinus americana
Gleditsia tricanthos
Gymnocladus diocia
Hammamelis virginiana
Ilex verticillata
Itea virginica
Juniper horizontalis
Juniper communis
Juniper virginiana
Liquidamber styraciflua
Lirodendron tulipifera
Magnolia virginiana
Malus spp.
Myrica pennsylvanica
Nyssa sylvatica
Oxydendron arboreum
Parthenocissus tricuspidata
Picea abies
Picea pungens
Pinus nigra
Pinus strobus
Pinus sylvestris
Platanus x acerfolia
Prunus virginiana
Rhus typhina
Rosa rugosa
Quercus alba
Quercus bicolor
Quercus coccinea
Quercus palustris
Quercus rubra
Quercus shumardii
Rhodotypos scandens
Rhus typhina
Salix alba
Syringa vulgaris
Salix discolor
Taxus cvs
Taxodium distichum
Thuja occidentalis
Tilia americana
Tilia cordata
Tsuga canadensis
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum dilatatum
Viburnum lantana
Viburnum lentago
Viburnum prunifolium
Viburnum trilobum

 

Plants That Tolerate Clay Soil


Trees

Acer campestre and cvs.
Acer rubrum and cvs.
Acer saccharinum and cvs.
Betula nigra spp. and cvs.
Crategus spp. and cvs.
Eleagnus augustifolia
Gleditsia Triacanthos inermis and cvs.
Koelreuteria paniculata
Liquidamber styraciflua and cvs.
Malus most cvs.
Picea spp. and cvs.
Platanus x acerfolia and cvs.
Prunus Virg. 'Shubert'
Pyrus, most cvs.
Salix, most cvs.
Taxoium distichum spp, and cvs.
Ulmus spp. and cvs.

Shrubs

Aronia spp. and cvs
Chaenomeles spp. and cvs.
Cornus sericea, racemosa
Eleagnus augustifoliaand cvs.
Euonymus, most cvs.
Forsythia x Spring Glory
Hamamelis most cvs.
Junipers horiz. spp. and cvs.
Juniper virginiana and cvs.
Kolkwitzia amabilis
Lonicera tatericum spp and cvs.
Myrica pennsylvanica
Pyracantha spp. and cvs.
Rhodotypos scandens
Rhus spp. and cvs.
Ribies alpinum
Rosa rugosa and cvs.

Shrubs-continued

Taxus most cvs.
Viburnum dentatum and cvs.
Viburnum lantana and cvs.
Viburnum opulus and cvs.

Groundcovers & Perennials

Aegopodium pod. 'Variegata'
Ajuga spp. and cvs.
Euonymus fort. 'Coloratus'
Grasses, ornamental, most
Hemerocallis, all
Hosta, all
Houttuynia cordata ' Cameleon'
Juniper, Most low growing types
Lonicera japonica 'Halls'
Pachysandra Terminalis spp. and cvs.

 

Plants & Aerial Salt Tolerance

Varieties List

This list is a suggestion of varieties and salt tolerances. This list is a guideline only and with the understanding that site variables, plant health and proper soil preparations may alter tolerance levels.

Trees

Plant

Acer Campestre
Acer Celebration
Acer ginnala and cvs.
Acer platanoides and cvs.
Acer rubrum and cvs.
Acer saccharium and cvs.
Amelanchier spp. and cvs.
Betula nigra spp. and cvs.
Carpinus betula and cvs.
Celtis occidientalis
Cornus alternifolia
Cornus kousa chinensis and cvs.
Cornus mas and cvs.
Fagus sylvatica spp.and cvs.
Ginko biloba and cvs.
Gymnocladus dioica and cvs.
Liquidambar styraciflua and cvs.

Tolerance

Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Sensitive
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Tolerant
Tolerant
Sensitive

Plant

Lirodendron tulipifera
Malus spp. and cvs.
Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Nyssa sylvatica
Picea spp. and cvs.
Pinus spp. and cvs.
Platnus spp. and cvs.
Populusspp. and cvs.
Prunus and cvs.
Pyrus calleryana and cvs.
Quercus spp. and cvs.
Salix spp. and cvs.
Tilia cordata and cvs.
Tsuga canadensis and cvs.
Ulmus spp. and cvs.
Zelkova serr. and cvs.

Tolerance

Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Sensitive
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Sensitive
Moderate
Moderate


Shrubs

Plant

Amelanchier canadensis and cvs.
Aronia spp. and cvs.
Azalea evergreen, decidous and cvs.
Berberris thunbergi and cvs.
Chaenomeles japonica and cvs.
Cornus alba , sericea and cvs.
Corylus avellana and cvs.
Cotoneaster most cvs.
Eleagnus spp and cvs.
Eounymus alata and cvs.
Euonymus fortunei and cvs.
Forsythia x intermedia and cvs.
Hamamelis spp. and cvs
Hibiscus syriaca and cvs.
Hydrangea most cvs.
Hypericum spp. and cvs
Ilex all evergreen types
Ilex vert. and cvs.
Junipers most cvs.
Kolkwitzia amabilis and cvs.
Ligustrum most cvs.

Tolerance

Tolerant
Tolerant
Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Sensitive
Moderate
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Tolerant
Sensitive
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate

Plant

Lonicera most cvs.
Magnolia hybrids and cvs.
Myrica pensylvanica
Philadelphus Virginalis and cvs.
Physocarpus opulifolia and cvs.
Potentilla cvs.
Prunus x cistena
Pyracantha and cvs.
Rhamnus fragula and cvs.
Rhododendrons most
Rhus most cvs.
Ribies alpinum and cvs.
Rosa and cvs.
Spiraea and cvs.
Syringa vulgaris and hyb.
Taxus media and cvs.
Thuja occidentalis and cvs.
Viburnum most cvs.
Weigelia florida and cvs.
Yucca fillmentosa and cvs.

Tolerance

Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Tolerant
Tolerant
Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Sensitive
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant

 

Plants That Tolerate Urban Conditions

Shrubs

Trees

Aronia arbutifolia
Berberis thunbergi and cvs.
Celastris scandens
Chaenomeles spp. and cvs.
Chionathus virginicus
Clethrea, all
Cornus mas
Cornus racemosa and cvs.
Cotoneaster cvs.
Eleagnus umbellata and cvs.
Euonymus spp. and cvs.
Forsythia spp. and cvs.
Grasses, nearly all
Hamamelis spp. and cvs.
Hibiscus syriacus and cvs.
Hydrangea most cvs.
Hypericum spp. and cvs.
Ilex crenata and cvs.
Ilex glabra and cvs.
Ilex x meserveae and cvs.
Iltea spp. and cvs.
Juniperus spp. and cvs.
Ligustrum spp. and cvs.
Lonicera spp. and cvs.
Magnolia stellata and cvs.
Myrica pensylvancia
Potentilla, most
Pyracantha spp. and cvs.
Rhamnus spp. and cvs.
Rhodotypos scandens
Rhus spp. and cvs.
Rosa rugosa and cvs.
Salix spp. and cvs
Spiraea spp. and cvs.
Syringa x prestoniae and cvs.
Syringa reticulata
Syringa vulgaris and cvs.
Taxus spp. and cvs.
Viburnums, most
Weigelia spp. and cvs.
Wisteria sinensis and cvs.
Yucca filimentosa and cvs.
Acer sacharum and cvs.
Acer ginnala
Acer platanoides and cvs.
Carpinus betulus and cvs.
Celtis occidentalis and cvs.
Chamaecyparis obtusa and cvs.
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis and cvs.
Crategus spp. and cvs.
Eleagnus augustafolia
Fagus sylvatica and cvs.
Gleditsia tricanthos inermis and cvs.
Gymnocladuc dioca
Koelreuteria paniculata
Laburnum x wateri "Vossi"
Liquidamber styraciflua and cvs.
Liriodendron tulipifera
Malus spp. and cvs.
Nyssa sylvatica
Picea spp. and cvs.
Pinus nigra
Platnus spp. and cvs.
Populus spp. cvs. and hybrids
Pyrus calleryana and cvs.
Taxodium distichum and cvs.
Tillia codata and cvs.
Ulmus cvs. and hybrids

 

The above list is from several professional sources and research projects. The list is growing due to new hybrid's that are being introduced into the industry. This rush of products is being introduced as part of the green movement.

 

Butterfly Gardens

In creating a butterfly garden, you must provide a suitable habitat for the entire growing season. The preparation of the location and plant selection will increase your success and enjoyment of the garden. The butterfly garden should include: * Host plants for the larvae *Nectar plants for the adults *Water * Shelter from predators and weather * An open area where butterflies can bask in the sun.

Perennial Plants

Trees and Shrubs

Ageratum (Ageratum)
Aster (Aster species)
Bee-balm (Monarda didyma)
Black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia species)
Bugle (Ajuga reptans)
Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)
Coreopsis (Coreopsis species)
Daisy, Shasta (Chrysanthemum maximum)
Daylily (Hemerocallis species)
False indigo (Baptisia australis)
Gayfeather (Liatris species)
Goldenrod (Solidago species)
Hibiscus (Hibiscus species)
Joe-pye weed (Eupatorium fistulosum)
Passion flower (Passiflora species)
Phlox (Phlox paniculata, P. carolina)
Sage (Salvia leucantha; Salvia species)
Sedum (Sedum species)
Verbena (Verbena species)
Yarrow (Achillea species)
Buckeye (Aesculus parviflora; A. pavia)
Buddleia (Buddleia davidii)
Hawthorn (Crataegus species)
Mock orange (Philadelphus species)
Pear (Pyrus communis)
Plum (Prunus species)
Redbud (Cercis)
Rose of sharon (Hibiscus syriacus)
Spiraea (Spiraea species)
Summersweet (Clethra alnifolia)
Viburnum (Viburnum species)

 

SUGGESTED LARVAL FOOD PLANTS: For Specific Types of Adult Butterfly

Asters (Aster species): Pearly crescentspot
Antennaria, Anaphalis, Gnaphalium: American painted lady
Cherry laurel, black cherry, wild plums (Prunus species ): Tiger swallowtail
Clovers (Trifolium species) and other legumes: Sulfurs, gray hairstreak
Dogwoods (Cornus species) and viburnum: Spring azure
Elm (Ulmus species), willows: Mourning cloak, viceroy
Hackberries (Celtis species): Hackberry butterfly
Milkweed (Asclepias species): Monarch
Mustard family: Cabbage and checkered whites
Native grasses : Various skippers
Oaks (Quercus species): Banded hairstreak
Passion flowers (Passiflora species): Gulf fritillary
Paw paw (Asimina species): Zebra swallowtail
Pipevines (Aristolochia species): Pipevine swallowtail
Sassafras (Sassafras occidentalis): Palamedes swallowtail
Spicebush (Lindera benzoin): Spicebush swallowtail
Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera): Red-Spotted purple

 

Plants For Hedges and Windbreaks

General Varieties List

This list is a suggestion of varieties that are used for hedges as well as a approximate height. The possibilities of course is endless and many other plants can be trimmed to fit into this category. When selecting a hedge or windbreak plant it is important to also consider soils, mature height as well as type of trimming that will be needed to maintain the desired design concept.

 

Plant

Acer campestre
Acer ginnala 'Flame"
Amelanchier cvs.
Aronia Arbutifolia and cvs.
Aronia melanocarpa and cvs.
Berberis thunbergi and cvs.
Carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata'
Cornus sericea cvs.
Cotinus coggygria cvs.
Crategus crusgalli cvs
Crategus phaenopyrum
Eounymus alatus 'Compacta'
Forsythia x 'Spring Glory'
Hibiscus syriacus and cvs.
Ilex x 'China Boy & Girl'

Approx. height

20-25'
12-15'
12-18'
6-8'
4-8'
3-5'
25-30'
5-8'
12-15'
15-20'
18-20'
8-10'
4-8'
8-10'
8-10'

Plant

Juniper s. 'Witchita Blue'
Ligutrum o. regalianum
Ligutrum x 'Ibolium'
Ligustrum x 'Vicary'
Lonicera fragrantissima
Magnolia cvs
Picea spp. cvs
Pinus Strobus
Quercus r. Fastigiata and cvs.
Rhamnus frag. and cvs.
Syringa vulgaris and cvs.
Taxus spp. and cvs.
Thuja occidentalis and cvs.
Thuja plic. and cvs
Tsuga canadensis

Approx. height

15-18'
5-7'
8-10'
5-6'
6-10'
15-30'
30-60'
50-60'
50-60'
12-15'
10-20'
8-10'
10-18'
10-18'
25-40'


Formal Clipped Hedges

This list suggests plants that will be able to take a tight regular formal trimming.

Plant

Acer ginnala 'Flame'
Berberis thunbergi and cvs.
Buxus spp. and cvs
Crategus crusgalli cvs
Crategus phaenopyrum
Eounymus alatus 'Compacta'
Ilex x 'China Boy & Girl'
Ilex x mes. cvs.
Juniper virginana and cvs.

Approx. height

12-15'
3-5'
2-8'
15-20'
18-20'
8-10'
8-10'
10-15'
12-18'

Plant

Ligutrum o. regalianum
Ligutrum x 'Ibolium'
Ligustrum x 'Vicary'
Lonicera tatarica anc cvs.
Taxus spp. and cvs.
Thuja occidentalis and cvs.
Thuja plic. and cvs
Tsuga canadensis
Viburnum cvs.

Approx. height

5-7'
8-10'
5-6'
8-10'
8-10'
10-18'
10-18'
25-40'
12-18'


 

Tables & Conversions

 

Planting Groundcovers & Perennials

Total Square Footage Spacing Of Plants On Center
  4in 6in 8in 12in 18in 24in 36in
50 450 200 100 50 22 12 5
100 900 425 225 100 45 25 11
150 1350 650 350 150 67 37 16
200 1800 875 450 200 90 50 22
250 2250 1100 550 250 112 62 28
300 2700 1325 675 300 135 75 33
400 3600 1775 900 400 180 100 44
500 4500 2225 1100 500 225 125 55
600 5400 2675 1350 600 270 150 66
700 6300 3125 1550 700 315 175 77
800 7200 3575 1800 800 360 200 88
900 8100 4000 2000 900 405 225 99
1000 9000 4500 2250 1000 450 250 100

 

Coverage For Bulk Mulch and Other Products

Total Square Footage Depth In Inches
  1 Inch 2 Inches 4 Inches
50 0.2 0.3 0.6
100 0.3 0.6 1.2
150 0.5 0.9 1.9
200 0.6 1.2 2.5
250 0.8 1.5 3.1
500 1.5 3.1 6.2
1000 3.1 6.2 12
1500 4.6 9.3 18
2000 6.2 12 25
2500 7.7 15 31
5000 15 31 62

 

*Formulas for finding area or square footage:

Circles

Triangle

Rectangles and Square

Diameter x diameter x .7854

1/2 Length of the base x height

Height x width